Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
Users Online: 621
Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current issue | Archives | Submit article | Instructions | Subscribe | Contacts | Login 
     


 
 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 64-72  

Cysticercus cellulosae antigens in the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis


Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, India

Date of Web Publication31-Oct-2011

Correspondence Address:
Subhash Chandra Parija
Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry- 605 006
India
Login to access the Email id


DOI: 10.4103/2229-5070.86932

PMID: 23508242

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is difficult to diagnose clinically because of its varied clinical presentation. However, an accurate diagnosis is possible only after suspicion on epidemiological grounds, proper interpretation of the clinical data, analysis of the findings on imaging studies, and specific immunological tests on the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The diagnosis of NCC by any single parameter thus continues to remain difficult. In the past, detection of NCC was based on autopsy studies and histological confirmation. In recent times, the advent of imaging methods such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have provided excellent non-invasive tools for easy detection of NCC. Nevertheless, an imaging technique of the brain, although useful, is not considered as a gold standard for the diagnosis of NCC. Serological tests are being increasingly used in adjunct with imaging techniques, to aid the diagnosis of NCC. Immunodiagnostic techniques include detection methods for specific antibodies and for circulating parasite antigens in the serum and CSF. Currently, many of the immunodiagnostic tests, including the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme immunotransfer blot, use purified native antigens for the immunodiagnosis of NCC. Nevertheless, the main problem with the use of native cysticercal antigens is that the native proteins often show cross reactions with sera from humans infected with other parasites. The preparation of native antigens also demand a constant supply of parasitic material from the intermediate host pig. In order to overcome the problems in using native antigens, the recombinant antigens or synthetic peptides, which can be produced under stable conditions, are being evaluated for the serodiagnosis of NCC.

Keywords: Neurocysticercosis, serodiagnosis, native antigens, recombinant antigens, synthetic antigens


How to cite this article:
Parija SC, Gireesh A R. Cysticercus cellulosae antigens in the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. Trop Parasitol 2011;1:64-72

How to cite this URL:
Parija SC, Gireesh A R. Cysticercus cellulosae antigens in the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. Trop Parasitol [serial online] 2011 [cited 2019 Jul 21];1:64-72. Available from: http://www.tropicalparasitology.org/text.asp?2011/1/2/64/86932


   Introduction Top


Neurocysticercosis (NCC) due to Taenia0 solium metacestode is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. [1] This disease not only causes neurological morbidity, but also imposes economic hardships on impoverished populations. However, there are wide variations in the prevalence rates of NCC in different regions and different socioeconomic groups in the same country. [2]

Convulsions and / or seizures, intracranial hypertension, and psychiatric disturbances are the three most important manifestations of NCC, which may occur separately or in combination. [3],[4] However, the clinical manifestations of NCC are highly variable and depend on the number, location, and viability of the cyst, stage of development of the cyst, whether young or mature, intact or degenerated, and the immune status of the host. [3] Moreover, the incubation period varies from a few months to several years. [5],[6],[7] Hence, the clinical diagnosis of the condition continues to remain a problem.

In the absence of specific clinical manifestation(s) of NCC, diagnosis of the condition depends more on laboratory procedures. [8] During the last two decades, tremendous progress has been made in many fields, which have a direct bearing on the diagnosis of NCC in humans. First, the advent of newer imaging methods such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the diagnosis of space-occupying lesions caused by many parasitic conditions, including NCC. Second, emphasis has now shifted from traditional methods of detecting cysticercus antibodies, by NCC serology, to detecting cysticercus antigens in the serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), urine or other body fluids. Imaging methods and immunological tests in combination are now extensively used to supplement the clinical diagnosis of NCC. [5]

The newer imaging techniques such as CT and MRI, although helpful in identification and characterization of cysticerci, are not available in most endemic areas or are often too expensive. [9] The atypical appearance of the visualized lesions, failure to provide information about the viability of the parasite, and difficulty in differentiating these lesions from abscesses or neoplasms are also some of the limitations of imaging methods. [10]

The improvement of immunodiagnostic tests has contributed immensely to the diagnosis of NCC and a better understanding of the prevalence and epidemiology of the infection. Immunological techniques used in the diagnosis of NCC include detection of specific antibodies and antigens in the serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and other body fluids. [9] Extensive studies have been made on the use and evaluation of a variety of serological tests for diagnosis of NCC, but no test on its own provides unequivocal proof. Occurrence of a variation in the sensitivity and specificity of various immunoassays for diagnosis of NCC is a recognized problem due to (i) host heterogenous immune response, (ii) use of a variety of Cysticercus antigens from different sources, and (iii) an antigenic variation or drift exhibited by the parasite. [11],[12],[13]

Infection with Cysticercus cellulosae results in a specific antibody response. These antibodies can be detected in the serum, in CSF, and other body fluids. Several techniques such as radioimmunoassay, hemagglutination, the complement fixation test, dipstick assay, latex agglutination, ELISA, and the immunoblot techniques have been described to detect antibodies to C. cellulosae infections in humans. [9]

Initially, antigens used in antibody-detection assays were the native parasite antigens such as cyst fluid, excretion-secretion (ES) products or crude homogenates from cysticerci, from either T. solium or its related parasites. However, tests using these unpurified native parasite antigens show moderate sensitivities and relatively poor specificities. [9],[14],[15] In the recent past, improved protein-purification techniques and research on the antigenic properties of cyst fluid and surface proteins have led to the development of better serological tools. [16],[17],[18]

Classically, the serological tests for the detection of antibodies or antigens are based on the use of crude or purified antigen fractions. Of late, specific recombinant antigens and even synthetic peptide antigens are being used to obviate the difficulties associated with the traditional source of antigen material. This article seeks to review the various C. cellulosae antigens used in the serodiagnosis of NCC.


   Antigens of The Cysticerci Top


Native antigens of C. cellulosae

Serological tests in NCC using the C. cellulosae native antigen, prepared by conventional methods, had the inherent disadvantage of showing cross-reactions with related cestodes or other parasitic infections. [15] The cross reaction was partly due to the antigenic variation in the developmental stages of C. cellulosae and even strain variations in certain Taenia species. As the quality of the cysticercus antigen used in the methods played a major role in the specificity and sensitivity of an immunodiagnostic test, stress was placed on fractionation, purification, and characterization of the antigens.

The native antigens of C. cellulosae can be broadly classified into somatic Cysticercus antigens and metabolic Cysticercus antigens. Somatic Cysticercus antigens are the molecules comprising of the soma of the parasite, whereas, metabolic Cysticercus antigens are associated with molecules comprising of metabolic secretions and excretions, the excretory-secretory (ES) antigens. [19]

Somatic antigens of C. cellulosae

Various serological tests using crude preparations of somatic Cysticercus antigens have been employed in the diagnosis of NCC, particularly for the detection of antibodies in the serum and / or CSF, in many studies conducted earlier. These include protoscolex extract, [20],[21],[22],[23] cystic fluid, [24],[25],[26] cyst wall antigen, [13],[14] and the whole cyst homogenate preparation. [22],[27],[28],[29],[30],[31] Heterologous T. crassiceps antigenic peptides have also been used for the serodiagnosis of NCC in humans. [22],[32],[33]

Different tests such as the complement fixation test (CFT), the indirect hemagglutination test (IHA), counter current immuno-electrophoresis (CIEP), ELISA, and so on, using various somatic C. cellulosae antigens, have been evaluated in the diagnosis of NCC. [34],[35],[36],[37] Of these, the ELISA, using purified antigenic fractions has been reported to be better than the ELISA using crude antigen, for obviating cross-reactions. [31],[38],[39]

Various purified antigenic fractions of C. cellulosae have been reported to avoid cross-reactions, with varying degrees of success, although the desired specificity has not been achieved. [39] The ELISA using Sephadex G-200 purified antigen fraction (PAF-II) showed 95.23% sensitivity and 100% specificity. [40] Further analysis of Sephadex G-200 purified PAF-II of C. cellulosae revealed three highly immunoreactive and specific bands (18, 20, 24kDa) for diagnosis of NCC. The ELISA using these fractions has been evaluated in patients with NCC, particularly to assess the response to treatment with anti-cysticercal therapy. [41]

The EITB, with purified glycoprotein fraction of the cyst fluid appears to be sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of NCC. [42],[43],[44] GP50 is a glycosylated and GPI-anchored membrane protein, one of the diagnostic components of the lentil lectin purified glycoprotein (LLGP) antigens that have been used for the antibody-based diagnosis of NCC in an EITB, during the last 15 years. [45] The results of a study showed the affinity purified antigen fractions from the Taenia crassiceps Cysticercus vesicular fluid to be an important source of specific peptides, and to be useful in detecting Cysticercus antibodies. [33]

Excretory-secretory antigen of C. cellulosae

The ES antigens have been found to be better than the crude somatic antigen in the serodiagnosis of other parasitic diseases such as lymphatic filariasis, [46],[47],[48],[49] onchocerciasis, [50] dirofilariasis, [51] schistosomiasis, [52] fascioliasis, [53] trichinellosis, [54] toxocariasis, [55] opisthorchiasis, [56] amoebiasis, [57] malaria, [58] and toxoplasmosis. [59] Hence, the ES antigens of many parasites are being increasingly used in many parasitic infections, as useful markers for detecting active infections.

C. cellulosae ES antigens have also been evaluated in the diagnosis of NCC. [31],[60],[61] Many studies carried out earlier have reported the use of Cysticercus ES antigens, mostly sourced from heterologous parasites such as T. crassiceps, in the diagnosis of NCC. [28],[33],[60],[62]

Studies using homologous ES antigens, however, are only few and have been reported recently. [31],[61],[63] In a previous study conducted in our laboratory, the ELISA using a homologous ES antigen to detect the antibody in CSF showed a sensitivity of 64.28% and a specificity of 96.96%. [61] The ELISA using the homologous ES antigen detected Cysticercus antibodies in CSF with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 97.7%, in a study conducted in Mexico. [27] In another study, the ELISA using homologous T. solium metacestode ES antigen detected Cysticercus antibodies in 22 out of 24 cases of active NCC. [63] The ELISA using homologous ES antigen showed a sensitivity of 63.2% and specificity of 76.8% for the detection of antibodies in the serum, in a study reported from Chandigarh. [31]

Both homologous and heterologous ES antigens of Cysticercus have also been evaluated, in porcine and bovine cysticercosis, for identification of infected pigs and cattle infected with C. cellulosae.[64],[65],[66] In an Indian study, the ELISA using ES antigens showed a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 100%, when detecting C. cellulosae antibodies in the serum of pigs. [67]

Biochemical composition of cysticerci

The vesicular fluid, membrane, and the scolex of the cysticerci were found to contain 45.9, 20.1, and 34.9% proteins, respectively, and 49, 26.4, and 24.6% carbohydrates, respectively. [68] Pathak and Gaur (1985) [69] reported the cyst fluid to contain a pH of 6.9 - 7, ash (4.89%), dry matter (55.46%), organic substance (49.57%), and crude protein (1.89%). They reported the scolex to contain 8.20% ash, 65.26% dry matter, 57.20% organic substance, and 8.35% crude protein, while the membrane contained 6.69% ash, 63.36% dry matter, 53.30% organic substance, and 5.25% crude protein. In a related study, Gaur (1985) [70] reported 115.20 ± 0.32, 472.50 ± 2.65, and 85.10 ± 0.50 total lipids (mg / g), 128.73 ± 0.58, 501.52 ± 5.72, and 76.63 ± 3.96 cholesterol (mg / 100 ml) and 56.66 ± 2.65, 101.51 ± 2.70, and 38.06 ± 1.23 phospholipids (mg / 100 ml) in the scolex, cyst membrane, and cyst fluid, respectively.

The scolex, cyst membrane, and fluid were found to contain 9, 13, and 10 amino acids, respectively. [71] Pseudo cholinesterases and acetylcholine esterases were found to be localized in the vesicular membrane, whereas, acetylcholine esterase alone was found to be present in the scolex. [72] Martinez-Zedillo, et al., [73] found that pseudo-cholinesterase activity in C. cellulosae varied between 0.15 and 1.50 IU / ml and the mean acetylcholine esterase activity in the intact larvae was 2.5 IU / ml. The isolated bladder walls had greater activity of both enzymes than the intact cysticerci. In vitro incubation of C. cellulosae had a mean value of protein, in the hatching fluid, of 5.75 mg / dl at 2 hours and 16.38 mg / dl at 24 hours. The mean value of uric acid was 0.34 mg / dl at 24 hours. [74]

Synthetic antigens of C. cellulosae

In recent times, the advent of synthetic peptides has opened a new field and perspectives in diagnostic serology, as the source of pure epitopes and molecules, for use as antigens in the diagnosis of a variety of parasitic infections.

The first synthetic peptides were identified and evaluated in the immunodiagnosis of NCC by screening of the cDNA library of T. crassiceps, and were synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis. [75] Subsequently, the synthetic polypeptides that represented the full-length mature protein sTS14 were assessed for serologic potential using ELISA for the diagnosis of NCC. [76] Since then, pure epitopes and molecules are being increasingly used as diagnostic antigens in a large number of parasitic infections including malaria, [77] Chagas' disease, [78] leishmaniasis, [79] schistosomiasis, [80] cystic echinococcosis, [81] fascioliasis, [82] and cysticercosis. [83]

A few studies evaluating synthetic peptides have been carried out in NCC. For instance, the ELISA using a synthetic peptide SPACc showed a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 94.3%, to detect a Cysticercus antibody in the serum for diagnosis of NCC. [84] The ELISA using a synthetic peptide Ts45W-1 showed a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 83.5% to detect the Cysticercus antibody in serum, in a study carried out in Venezuela. [83] In another study carried out in Mexico, the ELISA using a synthetic peptide KETc12 exhibited a sensitivity of 93.7% and a specificity of 100%, to detect the Cysticercus antigen in CSF. [85] The Diagnostic utility of five Taenia saginata onchosphere-derived synthetic peptides in T. solium NCC was evaluated with CSF samples, in Brazilian patients. [86] In that study, the indirect ELISA using the peptides either unconjugated or coupled to carrier proteins, showed a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 85%, with peptides HP6-2 and Ts45W-1. [86]

Recombinant antigens of C. cellulosae

Recombinant antigens have been evaluated in the recent past for diagnosis of many parasitic diseases such as cystic echinococcosis; [87] Chagas' disease; [88] fascioliasis [89] filariasis; [90] amoebiasis; [91] malaria [92] and leishmaniasis. [93]

Characterizing species-specific antigens of T. solium has led to the availability of several high quality antigens in the serodiagnosis of NCC. Now the research on the serodiagnosis has focused on the stable production of diagnostic antigens, using molecular techniques. Many studies have been carried out for the production and evaluation of recombinant antigens for the serodiagnosis of NCC. [94],[95],[96],[97],[98],[99],[100]

Bueno, et al, [97] evaluated ELISA using recombinant GP50 antigen and showed a sensitivity of 94.7% and a specificity of 100% for cysticercus antibodies in the serum and showed a sensitivity of 93.8% and specificity of 100% for cysticercus antibodies in the CSF. Similarly, Hancock, et al, [96] expressed the active recombinant GP50 in a baculovirus expression system, and the recombinant antigen, when used in ELISA, showed a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 100% in the diagnosis of NCC. The EITB assay, using a T24 recombinant antigen, showed a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 98% with serum samples in patients with NCC. [98]

In a recent study, Handali, et al, [100] evaluated ELISA using six cysticercosis diagnostic proteins (rGP50, rT24H, sTsRS1, sTs18var1, sTsRS2var1, sTs14) of which rT24H performed well in detecting cases with two or more viable cysts in the brain, with a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 99.4%, with sera collected from defined cases of NCC. Ferrer, et al, [101] expressed the Ts8B2 (8 kDa antigen), which when used in ELISA showed a sensitivity of 96.8% and 67.7% for active and inactive cases of NCC, respectively.

The ELISA, using a recombinant TS14 antigen, showed 100% positivity with CSF and 97% positivity with serum samples from NCC patients, in a study carried out in Brazil. [99] The purified G-F18 fusion protein synthesized by antibody screening of T. solium metacestode cDNA library showed the best results when it was used in ELISA with sera from NCC patients. [95] In a study by Chung, et al[94] , conducted in Korea, the EITB analysis of sera using a 10 kDa recombinant protein, from patients with active NCC, showed a strong reactivity of 97%.

Screening of T. solium metacestode cDNA library identified four antigen candidate clones Ag1, Ag1V1, Ag2, and Ag2V1 in a study carried out in Japan. These clones, except Ag2V1, encoded a 7-kDa polypeptide, and Ag2 encoded a 10-kDa polypeptide and showed 53 - 94% similarity at the amino acid level. The difference between the polypeptide size predicted from a cDNA sequence and the native antigen size detected by immunoblot analysis suggested the occurrence of an N-linked glycosylation, as putative N-linked glycosylation sites existed in Ag1 and Ag1V1. [102] Obregon-Henao, et al, [103] demonstrated that purified 12, 16, and 28 kDa native GPs migrated as 7-kDa proteins after treatment of enzymatic deglycosylation, which indicated that the protein backbone of GPs was similar in size (7 kDa), but the extent of glycosylation was different. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA and EITB using some of the C. cellulosae recombinant antigens are listed in [Table 1].
Table 1: Different C. cellulosae recombinant antigens employed in ELISA and EITB with their sensitivity and specificity

Click here to view


Currently, routine immunodiagnosis of NCC still relies heavily on the use of native antigens such as complete somatic homogenate, metacestode cyst fluid, cyst wall antigen, protoscolex antigen, and excretory - secretory products. The only source for antigens is T. solium cysticerci, obtained from the parasites extracted from diseased pork meat. The amount of cysticerci obtained from pork varies widely in relation to the parasite burden. [76],[104] Moreover, in many cases, preparation of adequate antigen extracts in sufficient amounts is still linked to the detection of swine naturally infected with T. solium larvae, which is often difficult to obtain. [105] Parasitized pork is also difficult to obtain even in areas where the organism is endemic because farmers tend to hide sick animals to avoid confiscation; denying the occurrence of such infected pork and the animals are eventually sacrificed and sold clandestinely. [104]

It would be desirable to have an animal model for T. solium that could easily be maintained in the laboratory and could be used as an alternative source of parasites.The possibility of achieving such an animal model arises from the observation that the Taenia species share common antigens. The ORF strain of Taenia crassiceps reproduces in an asexual manner by intraperitoneal passage through female BALB/c mice, representing an important experimental model for possible use in experimental Taenia infection. [106],[107]

Difficulties in obtaining somatic cysticercal antigens in large quantities have prevented the standardization of immunodiagnostic tests and the access of many patients to these diagnostic studies. To overcome the problems with somatic cysticercal antigen, many studies have been carried out on the use of ES antigens in cysticercosis serology. [31],[61],[63],[108] However, the main problem with the use of ES antigen is that the production of ES through in vitro cysticerci culture is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and expensive. The turnaround time from the collection of live cysticerci to the end of the culture harvest takes nearly about one month, and production of the crude ES proteins from each batch is of a very small quantity. [105] Second, because of the complexity of the crude ES proteins produced from the in vitro cultures, the ES antigen often cannot be used directly in tests such as ELISA and lateral flow (immunochromatographic strip tests), without further purification. [109] Moreover, the low protein yield from the in vitro cultured ES antigen limits further purification. [105]

Unfortunately, most of the diagnostic tests that employ these native cysticercus antigens, either somatic or ES antigens, suffer from poor sensitivity, specificity, and poor reproducibility. Cross-reactions with serum from patients with other parasitic infections such as cystic echinococcosis and alveolar echinococcosis, caused by larval Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively, is a noted problem. [110],[111] Hence, in several studies carried out earlier, attempts have been made to refine these native antigen preparations further to enhance their specificity and to avoid cross reaction with other parasitic infections when used in various immunoassays in cysticercosis.

Effective immunodiagnosis of NCC depends largely on the identification and availability of well-defined specific antigens. The use of purified antigens from T. solium metacestodes in immunoassays allows a sensitive, but not a specific diagnosis of cysticercosis. [110],[112] Over the past two decades, many efforts have been directed toward purification and characterization of specific antigens of T. solium metacestode, either from whole worms or from cyst fluid. [16],[25],[43],[111] Various biochemical methods had been evaluated to obtain the purified antigen from complex antigenic preparations of C. cellulosae. Serological tests for the diagnosis of NCC using crude or purified Cysticercus antigen, show varying specificity due to the immunological cross reactivity, because of the presence of carbohydrate epitopes. [111] Moreover, all these methods carried out to obtain purified antigen are laborious, expensive, and the material obtained after the purification is very little. [3],[61]

As the isolation of purified antigens from cysticerci is limited by the paucity of materials, recombinant DNA technology that would yield sufficient quantities of pure antigens appears to be the best alternative available in this direction. [83] Production of antigens by recombinant DNA technology ensures a uniform, specific, pure, and continuous supply, which can be used in the serodiagnosis of an infectious disease. [99],[105]


   Conclusion Top


Theoretically, a mixture of recombinant proteins with immunodiagnostic potential can help to solve these drawbacks of using native antigens. Unlimited amounts of antigen can be produced under controlled conditions, and it may even be possible to identify and remove the cross reactive epitopes, without losing the diagnostic efficiency. Such a permanent source of diagnostic antigens will also be useful in endemic countries where collection of T. solium cysticerci is difficult. The use of recombinant antigen will also overcome the major disadvantages of poor reproducibility of serodiagnostic methods between different laboratories, presumably due to variability in the nature and purity of the parasite antigen extracts employed. Reproducibility in diagnostic tests will be much more enhanced by the use of cysticercus recombinant antigens or synthetic peptides.

 
   References Top

1.Eddi C, Nari A, Amanfu W . Taenia solium cysticercosis / taeniasis: Potential linkage with FAO activities; FAO support possibilities. Acta Trop 2003;87:145-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Kyvsgaard NC, Johansen MV, Carabin H. Simulating transmission and control of Taenia solium infections using a Reed-Frost stochastic model. Int J Parasitol 2007;37:547-58.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Parija SC. Textbook of Medical Parasitology. 3 rd ed. All India Publishers and Distributors. Chennai. 2008.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Prasad A, Gupta RK, Nath K, Pradhan S, Tripathi M, Pandey CM, et al. What triggers seizures in neurocysticercosis? - A MRI based Study in Pig Farming Community from a District of North India. Parasitol Int 2008;57:166-71.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Sinha S, Sharma BS. Neurocysticercosis: a review of current status and management. J Clin Neurosci 2009;16:867-76.   Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Garcia HH, Gonzalez AE, Gavidia C, Falcon N, Bernal T, Verastegui M, et al. Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. Seroincidence of porcine T. solium infection in the Peruvian highlands. Prev Vet Med 2003;57:227-36.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Carpio A. Neurocysticercosis: an update. Lancet Infect Dis 2002;2:751-62.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Espinoza B, Ruiz-Palacios G, Tovar A, Sandoval MA, Plancarte A, Flisser A. Characterization by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the humoral immune response in patients with neurocysticercosis and its application in immunodiagnosis. J Clin Microbiol 1986;24:536-41.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Dorny P, Brandt J, Zoli A, Geerts S. Immunodiagnostic tools for human and porcine cysticercosis. Acta Trop 2003;87:79-86.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Yancey LS, Diaz-Marchan PJ, White AC. Cysticercosis: Recent Advances in diagnosis and Management of neurocysticercosis. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2005;7:39-47.   Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Yakoleff-Greenhouse V, Flisser A, Sierra A, Larralde C. Analysis of antigenic variation in cysticerci of Taenia solium. J Parasitol 1982;68:39-47.   Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Katti MK, Chandramukhi A. Comparative evaluation of cysticercal antigens and immunoassays in the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1991;85:605-15.   Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Shukla N, Husain N, Jyotsna, Gupta S, Husain M. Comparisons between scolex and membrane antigens of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Cysticercus cellulosae larvae for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2008;41:519-24.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Arruda GC, da Silva AD, Quagliato EM, Maretti MA, Rossi CL. Evaluation of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticercal antigens for the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. Trop Med Int Health 2005;10:1005-12.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Iudici Neto F, Pianetti-Filho G, Araújo RN, Nascimento E. Immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis by using semipurified scolex antigens from Taenia solium cysticerci. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2007;40:163-9.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Ito A, Plancarte A, Ma L, Kong Y, Flisser A, Cho SY, et al. Novel antigens for neurocysticercosis: Simple method for preparation and evaluation for serodiagnosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1998;59:291-4.   Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Ito A, Craig PS. Immunodiagnostic and molecular approaches for the detection of taeniid cestode infections. Trends Parasitol 2003;19:377-81.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Zimic M, Pajuelo M, Rueda D, López C, Arana Y, Castillo Y, et al. Cysticercosis Working Group in Perú. Utility of a protein fraction with cathepsin L-Likeactivity purified from cysticercus fluid of Taenia solium in the diagnosis of human cysticercosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2009;80:964-70.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Starke-Buzetti WA, Ferreira FP. Characterization of excretory / secretory antigen from Toxocara vitulorum larvae. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004;1026:210-8.   Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.Nascimento E, Tavares CA, Lopes JD. Immunodiagnosis of human cysticercosis (Taenia solium) with antigens purified by monoclonal antibodies. J Clin Microbiol 1987;25:1181-5.   Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.Yong TS, Yeo IS, Seo JH, Chang JK, Lee JS, Kim TS, et al. Serodiagnosis of cysticercosis by ELISA-inhibition test using monoclonal antibodies. Korean J Parasitol 1993;31:149-56.   Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.Pinto PS, Vaz AJ, Germano PM, Nakamura PM. ELISA test for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in pigs using antigens of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2000;42:71-9.   Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.Sahu PS, Parija SC, Jayachandran S. Antibody specific to 43kDa excretory-secretory antigenic peptide of Taenia solium metacestode as a potential diagnostic marker in human neurocysticercosis. Acta Trop 2010;115:257-61.   Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.Cho SY, Kim SI, Kang SY, Choi DY, Suk JS, Choi KS, et al. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serological diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using paired samples of serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Kisaengchunghak Chapchi 1986;24:25-41.   Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.Yang HJ, Chung JY, Yun D, Kong Y, Ito A, Ma L, et al. Immunoblot analysis of a 10 kDa antigen in cyst fluid of Taenia solium metacestodes. Parasite Immunol 1998;20:483-8.   Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.Shiguekawa KY, Mineo JR, de Moura LP, Costa-Cruz JM. ELISA and western blotting tests in the detection of IgG antibodies to Taenia solium metacestodes in serum samples in human neurocysticercosis. Trop Med Int Health 2000;5:443-9.   Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.Fleury A, Hernandez M, Fragoso G, Parkhouse RM, Harrison LJ, Sciutto E. Detection of secreted cysticercal antigen: a useful tool in the diagnosis of inflammatory neurocysticercosis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2003;97:542-6.   Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.Peralta RH, Macedo HW, Vaz AJ, Machado LR, Peralta JM. Detection of anti-cysticercus antibodies by ELISA using whole blood collected on filter paper. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2001;95:35-6.   Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.Katti MK. Assessment of antibody responses to antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Cysticercus cellulosae in cerebrospinal fluid of chronic meningitis patients for definitive diagnosis as TBM / NCC by passive hemagglutination and immunoblot assays. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2002;33:57-61.   Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.Mandal J, Singhi PD, Khandelwal N, Malla N. Evaluation of ELISA and dot blots for the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis, in children found to have single or multiple enhancing lesions in computerized tomographic scans of the brain. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2006;100:39-48.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.Atluri SR, Singhi P, Khandelwal N, Malla N. Neurocysticercosis immunodiagnosis using Taenia solium cysticerci crude soluble extract, excretory secretory and lower molecular mass antigens in serum and urine samples of Indian children. Acta Trop 2009;110:22-7.   Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.Bueno EC, Vaz AJ, Machado LD, Livramento JA, Mielle SR. Specific Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium antigenic peptides for neurocysticercosis immunodiagnosis using serum samples. J Clin Microbiol 2000;38:146-51.   Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.Pardini AX, Peralta RH, Vaz AJ, Machado Ldos R, Peralta JM. Use of Taenia crassiceps Cysticercus antigen preparations for detection of antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis (Taenia solium). Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2002;9:190-3.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.Mahajan RC. Geographical distribution of human cysticercosis: In: Flisser A, Williums K, Laclette JP, Larralde C, Ridaura,C, Beltran F, editors. Cysticercosis: Present State of Knowledge and Perspectives. New York: Academic Press Inc; 1982. p. 39-46.   Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.Chandramukhi A. Neuromicrobiology: In: Sunil K. Pandya, editor. Neurosciences in India: retrospect and Prospect. Delhi: The Neurological Society of India and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research; 1989. p. 361-97.   Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.Malla N, Kaur M, Kaur U, Ganguly NK, Mahajan RC. Evaluation of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of anti-Cysticercus antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with neurocysticercosis. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 1992;36:181-90.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.Katti MK. Reliability of immunoassays in diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. J Clin Microbiol 1996;34:2239.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.Mandal J, Singhi PD, Khandelwal N, Malla N. Evaluation of lower molecular mass (20-24 kDa) Taenia solium cysticercus antigen fraction by ELISA and dot blot for the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis in children. Parasitol Res 2008;102:1097-101.   Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.Malla N. Human Neurocysticercosis-Indian Perspective. J Parasitic Diseases 2000;24:9-13.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.Feldman M, Plancarte A, Sandoval M, Wilson M, Flisser A. Comparison of two assays (EIA and EITB) and two samples (saliva and serum) for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1990;84:559-62.   Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.Kaur M, Joshi K, Ganguly NK, Mahajan RC, Malla N. Evaluation of the efficacy of albendazole against the larvae of Taenia solium in experimentally infected pigs, and kinetics of the immune response. Int J Parasitol 1995;25:1443-50.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.Rosas N, Sotelo J, Nieto D. ELISA in the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. Arch Neurol 1986;43:353-6.   Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.Tsang VC, Brand AJ, Boyer AE. An Enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay by glycoprotein antigens for diagnosing human cysticercosis (Taenia solium). J Infect Dis 1989;159:50-9.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.Zini D, Farrell VJ, Wadee AA. The relationship of antibody levels to the clinical spectrum of human neurocysticercosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1990;53:656-61.   Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.Hancock K, Pattabhi S, Greene RM, Yushak ML, Williams F, Khan A, et al. Characterization and cloning of GP50, a Taenia solium antigen diagnostic for cysticercosis. Mol Biochem Parasitol 2004;133:115-24.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.Kaushal NA, Hussain R, Nash TE, Ottesen EA. Identification and characterization of excretory-secretory products of Brugia malayi, adult filarial parasites. J Immunol 1982;129:338-43.   Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.Kaushal NA, Hussain R, Ottesen EA. Excretory-secretory and somatic antigens in the diagnosis of human filariasis. Clin Exp Immunol 1984;56:567-76.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.Ho LC, Singh M, Yap EH, Ho BC. Immunodiagnosis of filariasis: Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using excretory-secretory antigens with indirect immunofluorescence. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1984;15:423-4.   Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.Chenthamarakshan V, Reddy MV, Harinath BC. Diagnostic potential of fractionated Brugia malayi microfilarial excretory / secretory antigen for bancroftian filariasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1996;90:252-4.   Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.Wanni NO, Strote G, Rubaale T, Brattig NW. Demonstration of immunoglobulin G antibodies against Onchocerca volvulus excretory-secretory antigens in different forms and stages of onchocerciasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1997;91:226-30.   Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.Dekumyoy P, Insun D, Waikagul J, Tanantaphruti M, Rongsriyam Y, Coochote W. IgG- and IgG4-detected antigens of Dirofilaria immitis adult worms for bancroftian filariasis by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2000;31:S58-64.   Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.Barsoum IS, Colley DG, Kamal KA. Schistosoma mansoni: detection of circulating antigens in murine schistosomiasis by antigen-capture sandwich ELISA using a monoclonal antibody. Exp Parasitol 1990;71:107-13.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.Haseeb AN, el-Shazly AM, Arafa MA, Morsy AT. Evaluation of excretory / secretory Fasciola (Fhes) antigen in diagnosis of human fascioliasis. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2003;33:123-38.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.Srimanote P, Ittiprasert W, Sermsart B, Chaisri U, Mahannop P, Sakolvaree Y, et al. Trichinella spiralis-specific monoclonal antibodies and affinity-purified antigen-based diagnosis. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2000;18:37-45.   Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.Gillespie SH, Bidwell D, Voller A, Robertson BD, Maizels RM. Diagnosis of human toxocariasis by antigen capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Pathol 1993;46:551-4.   Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.Jamornthanyawat N. The diagnosis of human opisthorchiasis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2002;33:86-91.   Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.Pal S, Sengupta K, Manna B, Sarkar S, Bhattacharya S, Das P. Comparative evaluation of somatic and excretory-secretory antigens of Entamoeba histolytica in serodiagnosis of human amoebiasis by ELISA. Indian J Med Res 1996;104:152-6.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.Cruz Cubas AB, Gentilini M, Danis M, Monjour L. Soluble antigens of intra-erythrocyte stages of Plasmodium falciparum: Diagnostic and vaccinal value. Pathol Biol (Paris) 1993;41:495-9.   Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.Daryani A, Hosseini AZ, Dalimi A. Immune responses against excreted / secreted antigens of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites in the murine model. Vet Parasitol 2003;113:123-34.   Back to cited text no. 59
    
60.Espindola NM, Vaz AJ, Pardini AX, Fernandes I. Excretory / secretory antigens (ES) from in-vitro cultures of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, and use of an anti-ES monoclonal antibody for antigen detection in samples of cerebrospinal fluid from patients with neurocysticercosis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2002;96:361-8.   Back to cited text no. 60
    
61.Sahu PS, Parija SC, Narayan SK, Kumar D. Evaluation of an IgG-ELISA strategy using Taenia solium metacestode somatic and excretory-secretory antigens for diagnosis of neurocysticercosis revealing biological stage of the larvae. Acta Trop 2009;110:38-45.  Back to cited text no. 61
    
62.Bueno EC, Snege M, Vaz AJ, Leser PG. Serodiagnosis of human cysticercosis by using antigens from vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2001;8:1140-4.   Back to cited text no. 62
    
63.Molinari JL, Garcia-Mendoza E, de la Garza Y, Ramirez JA, Sotelo J, Tato P . Discrimination between active and inactive neurocysticercosis by metacestode excretory / secretory antigens of Taenia solium in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2002;66:777-81.   Back to cited text no. 63
    
64.Brandt JR, Geerts S, De Deken R, Kumar V, Ceulemans F, Brijs L, et al. A monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for the detection of circulating excretory-secretory antigens in Taenia saginata cysticercosis. Int J Parasitol 1992;22:471-7.   Back to cited text no. 64
    
65.Draelants E, Brandt JR, Kumar V, Geerts S. Characterization of epitopes on excretory-secretory antigens of Taenia saginata metacestodes recognized by monoclonal antibodies with immunodiagnostic potential. Parasite Immunol 1995;17:119-26.  Back to cited text no. 65
    
66.Van Kerckhoven I, Vansteenkiste W, Claes M, Geerts S, Brandt J. Improved detection of circulating antigen in cattle infected with Taenia saginata metacestodes. Vet Parasitol 1998;76:269-74.   Back to cited text no. 66
    
67.D'Souza PE, Hafeez M. Detection of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs by ELISA with an excretory-secretory antigen. Vet Res Commun 1999;23:293-8.   Back to cited text no. 67
    
68.Nascimento E, Mayrink W. Evaluation of Cysticercus cellulosae antigens in the immunodiagnosis of human cysticercosis by indirect hemagglutination. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 1984;26:289-94.  Back to cited text no. 68
    
69.Pathak KM, Gaur SN. Biochemical composition of cysticercus of T. solium. Abstracts of 6 th national congress of parasitology. India: Pantnagar; 985. p. 24.  Back to cited text no. 69
    
70.Gaur SN. Immunological studies of C. cellulosae, a larval cestode in pigs and other domestic animals. Final report on research project. Nainital, India: ICAR 1985. p. 26-30.  Back to cited text no. 70
    
71.Kumar D, Gaur SN. Comparative evaluation of various immunodiagnostic tests for the diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs, using fractionated antigens. J Helminthol 1989;63:13-7.   Back to cited text no. 71
    
72.Kumar D, Gaur SN. Serodiagnosis of porcine cysticercosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using fractionated antigens. Vet Parasitol 1987;24:195-202.   Back to cited text no. 72
    
73.Martínez-Zedillo G, González-Barranco D, González-Angulo A. Presence of esterases and peptidases in the intact tegument of vesicles of Cysticercus cellulosae. Arch Invest Med (Mex) 1983;14:367-77.  Back to cited text no. 73
    
74.Kumar D, Gaur SN. Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs. Helminthol Abstr 1994;63:365-83.  Back to cited text no. 74
    
75.Gevorkian G, Manoutcharian K, Larralde C, Hernandez M, Almagro JC, Viveros M, et al. Immunodominant synthetic peptides of Taenia crassiceps in murine and human cysticercosis. Immunol Lett 1996;49:185-9.   Back to cited text no. 75
    
76.Greene RM, Hancock K, Wilkins PP, Tsang VC. Taenia solium: molecular cloning and serologic evaluation of 14- and 18-kDa related, diagnostic antigens. J Parasitol 2000;86:1001-7.  Back to cited text no. 76
    
77.Zerpa NC, Wide A, Noda J, Bermúdez H, Pabón R, Noya OO. Immunogenicity of synthetic peptides derived from Plasmodium falciparum proteins. Exp Parasitol 2006;113:227-34.  Back to cited text no. 77
    
78.Houghton RL, Benson DR, Reynolds L, McNeill P, Sleath P, Lodes M, et al. Multiepitope synthetic peptide and recombinant protein for the detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in patients with treated or untreated Chagas' disease. J Infect Dis 2000;181:325-30.  Back to cited text no. 78
    
79.Fargeas C, Hommel M, Maingon R, Dourado C, Monsigny M, Mayer R. Synthetic peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. J Clin Microbiol 1996;34:241-8.  Back to cited text no. 79
    
80.de Oliveira EJ, Kanamura HY, Takei K, Hirata RD, Valli LC, Nguyen NY, et al. Synthetic peptides as an antigenic base in an ELISA for laboratory diagnosis of Schistosomiasis mansoni. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2008;102:360-6.  Back to cited text no. 80
    
81.González-Sapienza G, Lorenzo C, Nieto A. Improved immunodiagnosis of cystic hydatid disease by using a synthetic peptide with higher diagnostic value than that of its parent protein, Echinococcus granulosus antigen B. J Clin Microbiol 2000;38:3979-83.  Back to cited text no. 81
    
82.Jezek J, El Ridi R, Salah M, Wagih A, Aziz HW, Tallima H, et al. Fasciola gigantica cathepsin L proteinase-based synthetic peptide for immunodiagnosis and prevention of sheep fasciolosis. Biopolymers 2008;90:349-57.  Back to cited text no. 82
    
83.Ferrer E, Cortéz MM, Cabrera Z, Rojas G, Dávila I, Alarcón de Noya B, et al. Oncospheral peptide-based ELISAs as potential seroepidemiological tools for Taenia solium cysticercosis / neurocysticercosis in Venezuela. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2005;99:568-76.  Back to cited text no. 83
    
84.Hell RC, Amim P, de Andrade HM, de Avila RA, Felicori L, Oliveira AG, et al. Immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using a synthetic peptide selected by phage-display. Clin Immunol 2009;131:129-38.   Back to cited text no. 84
    
85.Hernández M, Beltrán C, García E, Fragoso G, Gevorkian G, Fleury A, et al. Cysticercosis: towards the design of a diagnostic kit based on synthetic peptides. Immunol Lett 2000;71:13-7.   Back to cited text no. 85
    
86.Fleury A, Beltran C, Ferrer E, Garate T, Harrison LJ, Parkhouse RM, et al. Application of synthetic peptides to the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. Trop Med Int Health 2003;8:1124-30.  Back to cited text no. 86
    
87.Virginio VG, Hernández A, Rott MB, Monteiro KM, Zandonai AF, Nieto A, et al. A set of recombinant antigens from Echinococcus granulosus with potential for use in the immunodiagnosis of human cystic hydatid disease. Clin Exp Immunol 2003;132:309-15.  Back to cited text no. 87
    
88.Umezawa ES, Bastos SF, Camargo ME, Yamauchi LM, Santos MR, Gonzalez A, et al. Evaluation of recombinant antigens for serodiagnosis of Chagas' disease in South and Central America. J Clin Microbiol 1999;37:1554-60.  Back to cited text no. 88
    
89.Tantrawatpan C, Maleewong W, Wongkham C, Wongkham S, Intapan PM, Nakashima K. Serodiagnosis of human fascioliasis by a cystatin capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with recombinant Fasciola gigantica cathepsin L antigen. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2005;72:82-6.  Back to cited text no. 89
    
90.Lammie PJ, Weil G, Noordin R, Kaliraj P, Steel C, Goodman D, et al. Recombinant antigen-based antibody assays for the diagnosis and surveillance of lymphatic filariasis - a multicenter trial. Filaria J 2004;3:9.  Back to cited text no. 90
    
91.Lee J, Park SJ, Yong TS. Serodiagnosis of amoebiasis using a recombinant protein fragment of the 29 kDa surfacQ1e antigen of Entamoeba histolytica. Int J Parasitol 2000;30:1487-91.  Back to cited text no. 91
    
92.Kim S, Ahn HJ, Kim TS, Nam HW, ELISA detection of vivax malaria with recombinant multiple stage-specific antigens and its application to survey of residents in endemic areas. Korean J Parasitol 2003;41:203-7.   Back to cited text no. 92
    
93.Qu JQ, Zhong L, Masoom-Yasinzai M, Abdur-Rab M, Aksu HS, Reed SG, et al. Serodiagnosis of Asian leishmaniasis with a recombinant antigen from the repetitive domain of Leishmania kinesin. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1994;88:543-5.  Back to cited text no. 93
    
94.Chung JY, Bahk YY, Huh S, Kang SY, Kong Y, Cho SY, A recombinant 10-kDa protein of Taenia solium metacestodes specific to active neurocysticercosis. J Infect Dis 1999;180:1307-15.   Back to cited text no. 94
    
95.Montero E, González LM, Harrison LJ, Parkhouse RM, Gárate T. Taenia solium cDNA sequence encoding a putative immunodiagnostic antigen for human cysticercosis. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2003;786:255-69.  Back to cited text no. 95
    
96.Hancock K, Pattabhi S, Greene RM, Yushak ML, Williams F, Khan A, et al. Characterization and cloning of GP50, a Taenia solium antigen diagnostic for cysticercosis. Mol Biochem Parasitol 2004;133:115-24.  Back to cited text no. 96
    
97.Bueno EC, Scheel CM, Vaz AJ, Machado LR, Livramento JA, Takayanagui OM, et al. Application of synthetic 8-kD and recombinant GP50 antigens in the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2005;72:278-83.  Back to cited text no. 97
    
98.Hancock K, Pattabhi S, Whitfield FW, Yushak ML, Lane WS, Garcia HH, et al. Characterization and cloning of T24, a Taenia solium antigen diagnostic for cysticercosis. Mol Biochem Parasitol 2006;147:109-17.  Back to cited text no. 98
    
99.da Silva MR, Maia AA, Espíndola NM, Machado Ldos R, Vaz AJ, Henrique-Silva F. Recombinant expression of Taenia solium TS14 antigen and its utilization for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. Acta Trop 2006;100:192-8.   Back to cited text no. 99
    
100.Handali S, Klarman M, Gaspard AN, Noh J, Lee YM, Rodriguez S, et al. Multiantigen print immunoassay for comparison of diagnostic antigens for Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2010;17:68-72.   Back to cited text no. 100
    
101.Ferrer E, Martínez-Escribano JA, Barderas ME, González LM, Cortéz MM, Dávila I, et al. Peptide epitopes of the Taenia solium antigen Ts8B2 are immunodominant in human and porcine cysticercosis. Mol Biochem Parasitol 2009;168:168-71.  Back to cited text no. 101
    
102.Sako Y, Nakao M, Nakaya K, Yamasaki H, Ito A. Recombinant antigens for serodiagnosis of cysticercosis and echinococcosis. Parasitol Int 2006;55:S69-73.   Back to cited text no. 102
    
103.Obregón-Henao A, Londoño DP, Gómez DI, Trujillo J, Teale JM, Restrepo BI. In situ detection of antigenic glycoproteins in Taenia solium metacestodes. J Parasitol 2003;89:726-32.  Back to cited text no. 103
    
104.Zarlenga DS, Rhoads ML, al-Yaman FM. A Taenia crassiceps cDNA sequence encoding a putative immunodiagnostic antigen for bovine cysticercosis. Mol Biochem Parasitol 1994;67:215-23.   Back to cited text no. 104
    
105.Levine MZ, Calderón JC, Wilkins PP, Lane WS, Asara JM, Hancock K, et al. Characterization, cloning, and expression of two diagnostic antigens for Taenia solium tapeworm infection. J Parasitol 2004;90:631-8.   Back to cited text no. 105
    
106.Manoutcharian K, Rosas G, Hernandez M, Fragoso G, Aluja A, Villalobos N, et al. Cysticercosis: identification and cloning of protective recombinant antigens. J Parasitol 1996;82:250-4.  Back to cited text no. 106
    
107.Garza A, Weinstock J, Robinson P. Absence of the SP / SP receptor circuitry in the substance P-precursor knockout mice or SP receptor, neurokinin (NK)1 knockout mice leads to an inhibited cytokine response in granulomas associated with murine Taenia crassiceps infection. J Parasitol 2008;94:1253-8.   Back to cited text no. 107
    
108.Lopez JA, Garcia E, Cortes IM, Sotelo J, Tato P, Molinari JL. Neurocysticercosis: relationship between the developmental stage of metacestode present and the titre of specific IgG in the cerebrospinal fluid. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2004;98:569-79.  Back to cited text no. 108
    
109.Wilkins PP, Allan JC, Verastegui M, Acosta M, Eason AG, Garcia HH, et al. Development of a serologic assay to detect Taenia solium taeniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1999;60:199-204.  Back to cited text no. 109
    
110.Gottestein B, Tsang VC, Schantz PM. Demonstration of species specific and crossreactive components of Taenia solium metacestode antigens. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1986;35:308-13.   Back to cited text no. 110
    
111.Kong Y, Cho SY, Kim SI, Kang SY. Immunoelectrophoretic analysis of major component proteins in cystic fluid of Taenia solium metacestodes. Kisaengchunghak Chapchi 1992;30:209-18.  Back to cited text no. 111
    
112.Gottstein B, Zini D, Schantz PM. Species-specific immunodiagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis by ELISA and immunoblotting. Trop Med Parasitol 1987;38:299-303.  Back to cited text no. 112
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

Top
  
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
    Antigens of The ...
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed3797    
    Printed190    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded344    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal