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Laboratory methods of identification of Entamoeba histolytica and its differentiation from look-alike Entamoeba spp.
Subhash Chandra Parija, Jharna Mandal, Dinoop Korol Ponnambath
July-December 2014, 4(2):90-95
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.138535  PMID:25250228
Entamoeba histolytica , the causative agent of intestinal and extraintestinal amebiasis, is a common parasitic cause of significant morbidity and mortality in the developing countries. Hence, early detection and differentiation of pathogenic E. histolytica from nonpathogenic/commensal Entamoeba spp (Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii/Entamoeba bangladeshi) plays a crucial role in clinical management of patients with amebiasis. Most diagnostic tests currently available do not reliably differentiate between the species of Entamoeba and are less sensitive, cumbersome to perform. Molecular-based methods are highly sensitive, easy to perform and differentiates the pathogenic Entamoeba from nonpathogenic species, serving the criteria for an ideal diagnostic test for amebiasis. Recently, microarray technology has been found to be a promising tool for the diagnostic and epidemiological evaluation of amebiasis.
  37,262 86 8
Textbook of Medical Parasitology: Protozoology and Helminthology, 4 th edition by S. C. Parija
H Srinivasa
January-June 2013, 3(1):93-94
  27,097 1,520 -
Blastocystis: Consensus of treatment and controversies
Uma Sekar, M Shanthi
January-June 2013, 3(1):35-39
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.113901  PMID:23961439
Blastocystis is a highly controversial protozoan parasite. It has been variably regarded as a commensal and pathogen. Scientists have for decades wondered whether it is truly an enteropathogen and if it is observed in symptomatic patients whether treatment is required because patient recovery and improvement has been noted even without any treatment. Though associated with self-limiting infection, treatment is warranted in many patients due to persistence of symptoms. This particularly holds true for children and adults who are immuno compromised. Several drugs have been used to treat Blastocystis but each one of them has produced widely variable rates of clinical cure and eradication of the parasite from the feces. Based on the studies carried out in vitro and clinical responses obtained in patients, metronidazole appears to be the most effective drug for Blastocystis infection. However, the therapy is complicated due to different dosages and regimens adopted and the unresponsiveness to treatment observed in several sections of the population studied. Recently, the finding of different subsets of Blastocystis exhibiting resistance to metronidazole and associated with variable degrees of symptoms has underscored the importance of typing the subsets of the parasite in order to foretell the clinical response and the need to treat. Till date, the mode of action of the drugs used and the mechanism of resistance is not entirely known and is a topic of speculation. Other drugs with anti Blastocystis activity and used in therapy includes trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole and nitazoxanide. Several other compounds have also been evaluated for the treatment either alone or in combination with the first or second line drugs. A lot of interest has also been generated on the role of probiotics particularly Saccharomyces boularrdii and other natural food compounds on eradication of the parasite. This review provides a comprehensive overview of antimicrobials used to target Blastocystis and discusses the issues pertaining to drug resistance, treatment failure, reinfection, and the current views on treatment modalities.
  14,857 539 13
Current laboratory diagnosis of opportunistic enteric parasites in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients
Anuradha De
January-June 2013, 3(1):7-16
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.113888  PMID:23961436
Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Opportunistic enteric parasitic infections are encountered in 30-60% of HIV seropositive patients in developed countries and in 90% of patients in developing countries. Once the CD4 + cell count drops below 200 cells/μl, patients are considered to have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with the risk of an AIDS-defining illness or opportunistic infection significantly increasing. Opportunistic enteric parasites encountered in these patients are Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and microsporidia; as well as those more commonly associated with gastrointestinal disease, for example, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and also rarely Balantidium coli. In view of AIDS explosion in India, opportunistic enteric parasites are becoming increasingly important and it has to be identified properly. Apart from wet mounts, concentration methods for stool samples and special staining techniques for identification of these parasites, commercially available fecal immunoassays are widely available for the majority of enteric protozoa. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, flow cytometry, and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), have also come in the pipeline for early diagnosis of these infections. Proper disposal of the feces to prevent contamination of the soil and water, boiling/filtering drinking water along with improved personal hygiene might go a long way in preventing these enteric parasitic infections.
  13,620 636 3
Utilitarian and deontological ethics in medicine
Jharna Mandal, Dinoop Korol Ponnambath, Subhash Chandra Parija
January-June 2016, 6(1):5-7
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.175024  PMID:26998430
Medical ethics is a sensible branch of moral philosophy and deals with conflicts in obligations/duties and their potential outcome. Two strands of thought exist in ethics regarding decision-making: deontological and utilitarian. In deontological approach, outcomes/consequences may not just justify the means to achieve it while in utilitarian approach; outcomes determine the means and greatest benefit expected for the greatest number. In brief, deontology is patient-centered, whereas utilitarianism is society-centered. Although these approaches contradict each other, each of them has their own substantiating advantages and disadvantages in medical practice. Over years, a trend has been observed from deontological practice to utilitarian approach leading to frustration and discontentment. Health care system and practitioners need to balance both these ethical arms to bring congruity in medical practice.
  12,957 43 6
Blastocystis: Taxonomy, biology and virulence
Subhash Chandra Parija, SS Jeremiah
January-June 2013, 3(1):17-25
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.113894  PMID:23961437
The unicellular protist Blastocystis has long been an unsolved puzzle for taxonomists, microbiologists and clinicians. Over the years, the organism has been bounced on and off the different branches of the tree of life due the possession of unique phenotypic characters intermediary to different organisms. The organism is polymorphic with only few of forms such as vacuolar, granular, amoeboid, and the cyst form being commonly known. However it could exist in other forms much more frequently than the widely known forms which could be missed by the unaware observer. Certain older concepts in the life cycle of Blastocystis although has been proven wrong are still being followed in various textbooks and other trustworthy internet sources. The causal role of Blastocystis in human disease has long been a subject of controversy. It is widely believed that certain subtypes of the organism are virulent. But this is not so as other factors are also involved in the clinical outcome of the infection. In these contexts, this review intends to shed light on the past misconceptions and the recent findings on the taxonomy, biology and the virulence of this organism.
  10,785 424 15
Antimalarial drug resistance: An overview
Hiasindh Ashmi Antony, Subhash Chandra Parija
January-June 2016, 6(1):30-41
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.175081  PMID:26998432
Malaria is a major public health burden throughout the world. Resistance to the antimalarial drugs has increased the mortality and morbidity rate that is achieved so far through the malaria control program. Monitoring the drug resistance to the available antimalarial drugs helps to implement effective drug policy, through the in vivo efficacy studies, in vitro drug susceptibility tests and detection of molecular markers. It is important to understand the mechanism of the antimalarial drugs, as it is one of the key factors in the emergence and spread of drug resistance. This review summarizes the commonly used antimalarial drugs, their mechanism of action and the genetic markers validated so far for the detection of drug-resistant parasites.
  9,837 42 36
Morphology, epidemiology, and phylogeny of Babesia: An overview
Ramgopal Laha, M Das, A Sen
July-December 2015, 5(2):94-100
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.162490  PMID:26629451
Babesiosis is a tick-borne hemoprotozoan disease of domestic and wild animals. The disease is caused by various species of Babesia and some species of Babesia have also zoonotic significance. The parasite in vertebrate hosts' remains in erythrocytes and the morphology of Babesia spp. is not uniform in all vertebrate hosts. With the advancement of science, particularly the use of molecular techniques made it easy to study the evolution of parasites and thereby reclassifying Babesia spp. as per their phylogeny and to establish the relation of one isolate of Babesia spp. with isolates throughout the world. An attempt also made in this communication to enlighten the readers regarding relationship of one isolate of Babesia spp. of a particular area to another isolate of Babesia spp. of that area or other parts of the world and phylogenetic classification of Babesia spp. was also discussed. It has been concluded that as the study on Babesia is complex in nature so monitoring of the infection with the use of modern techniques is very much needed to control the infection. Second, more research work on phylogenetic relationship of Babesia spp. isolated from different hosts is needed, particularly in India to know the evolution of Babesia spp. of a particular area, as it has great importance to study the trans boundary diseases of animals.
  9,586 22 5
Intestinal parasitic infestation among children in a semi-urban Indian population
Dakshina Bisht, Ajay K Verma, Hari Har Deep Bharadwaj
July-December 2011, 1(2):104-107
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.86946  PMID:23508675
Background: Survey on the prevalence of various intestinal parasitic infestations in different geographic regions is a prerequisite to obtain an accurate understanding of the burden and cause of intestinal parasitic infestations in a particular area. The aim of the present study was to determine the intestinal parasitic infestation among children in a semi-urban area. Materials and Methods: A total of 335 stool samples were collected, processed, and microscopically examined for intestinal parasites. Results: One hundred twenty-eight (38%) stool samples showed presence of ova/cysts. Multiple parasites were seen in 42 (32.8%) samples. Among the protozoans, Entamoeba histolytica (55.3%) was the most common followed by Giardia lamblia (40.4%). Ascaris lumbricoides and Hymenolepis nana (24.2%) were the most common helminths detected. Conclusions: In most of the cases, intestinal parasitic infestation spreads due to low standards of personal hygiene, poor sanitation, non-usage of toilets and an illiterate population, thus suggesting regular surveys to help in devising optimum methods of control.
  8,579 414 6
Cultivation of parasites
Nishat Hussain Ahmed
July-December 2014, 4(2):80-89
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.138534  PMID:25250227
Parasite cultivation techniques constitute a substantial segment of present-day study of parasites, especially of protozoa. Success in establishing in vitro and in vivo culture of parasites not only allows their physiology, behavior and metabolism to be studied dynamically, but also allows the nature of the antigenic molecules in the excretory and secretory products to be vigorously pursued and analyzed. The complex life-cycles of various parasites having different stages and host species requirements, particularly in the case of parasitic helminths, often make parasite cultivation an uphill assignment. Culturing of parasites depends on the combined expertise of all types of microbiological cultures. Different parasites require different cultivation conditions such as nutrients, temperature and even incubation conditions. Cultivation is an important method for diagnosis of many clinically important parasites, for example, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leishmania spp., Strongyloides stercoralis and free-living amoebae. Many commercial systems like InPouch TV for T. vaginalis, microaerophilous stationary phase culture for Babesia bovis and Harada-Mori culture technique for larval-stage nematodes have been developed for the rapid diagnosis of the parasitic infections. Cultivation also has immense utility in the production of vaccines, testing vaccine efficacy, and antigen - production for obtaining serological reagents, detection of drug-resistance, screening of potential therapeutic agents and conducting epidemiological studies. Though in vitro cultivation techniques are used more often compared with in vivo techniques, the in vivo techniques are sometimes used for diagnosing some parasitic infections such as trypanosomiasis and toxoplasmosis. Parasite cultivation continues to be a challenging diagnostic option. This review provides an overview of intricacies of parasitic culture and update on popular methods used for cultivating parasites.
  8,525 142 6
Cryptosporidiosis: An under-recognized public health problem
Niyati T Desai, Rajiv Sarkar, Gagandeep Kang
July-December 2012, 2(2):91-98
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.105173  PMID:23767015
Cryptosporidium spp. is under recognized as an important pathogen causing diarrhea in children and HIV-infected individuals with associated high morbidity and mortality. In endemic areas, most symptomatic infections are in childhood and in immunocompromised adults. The immune status of the host plays a critical role in determining the severity of cryptosporidiosis. Infection is self-limited in immunocompetent hosts, but can be severe and persistent in the immunocompromised such as AIDS patients or malnourished children. Cryptosporidiosis in developing countries is a major cause of acute and persistent diarrhea in children and is associated with subsequent impairment in growth, physical fitness, and cognitive function. Despite recognition of the importance of immune status, the correlates of protective immunity in cryptosporidiosis in humans are poorly understood, and treatment modalities are limited.
  7,530 452 17
Ethics in human research
Jharna Mandal, Srinivas Acharya, Subhash Chandra Parija
January-June 2011, 1(1):2-3
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.72105  PMID:23509672
  7,441 429 3
Radiological manifestations of hydatid disease and its complications
Pooja Mehta, Mahesh Prakash, Niranjan Khandelwal
July-December 2016, 6(2):103-112
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.190812  PMID:27722098
Hydatid disease (HD) is endemic in many parts of the world. HD can affect virtually any organ system in body and should be kept as differential diagnosis of cystic lesion. HD is mostly asymptomatic; however, it demonstrates a variety of characteristic imaging findings depending on the site of involvement, stage of growth, mass effect, complications, or hematogenous spread, which helps in diagnosis. Radiography, ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are commonly used imaging modalities. Radiography is helpful in chest and for demonstrating calcification. USG demonstrates characteristic findings such as cystic nature, daughter vesicles, membranes, septa, and hydatid sand. CT and MRI are modalities of choice for number, size, anatomic location, identification of local complications, and systemic spread. CT is, especially helpful for osseous involvement, and MRI is better for biliary and neurological involvement. Knowledge of these imaging findings helps in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy.
  7,794 26 5
Right-sided scrotal ascariasis
Ranjan Kumar Dey, Rupali Dey, Rajdeep Saha
January-June 2012, 2(1):80-81
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.97253  PMID:23508119
We report a case of 35-year-old male patient who presented with painful right side of scrotum and worm pouting out of the scrotum. The patient had undergone surgery for strangulated right inguinal hernia 2 years back. On exploration we found multiple adult Ascaris worms in the scrotum with right-sided hydrocele. All the worms were removed and eversion of sac was done.
  7,642 161 -
Progress in the research on diagnosis and vaccines in amebiasis
Subhash Chandra Parija
January-June 2011, 1(1):4-8
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.72108  PMID:23508084
Entameba histolytica causes amebiasis, which includes both intestinal and extraintestinal amebiasis. E. histolytica causes 34 million to 50 million symptomatic cases of amebiasis worldwide every year, causing 40 thousand to 100 thousand deaths annually. E. histolytica, the pathogenic species of amebae is indistinguishable in its cyst and trophozoite stages from those of E. moshkovskii, a free-living ameba, and E. dispar, a non-invasive ameba, by microscopy, except in cases of invasive disease, where E. histolytica trophozoite may contain ingested red blood cells, but such a finding is rarely seen. This leads to a confusing scenario for the definite identification and differentiation of E. histolytica from E. moshkovskii and E. dispar by conventional microscopy, in the diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis. The advent of molecular methods such as multiplex PCR and real time PCR have facilitated a better and accurate diagnosis of E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii, and E. dispar in stool, urine, saliva, and other specimens. Multiplex PCR for the diagnosis of amebic liver abscess, using urine and saliva as clinical specimens, has been used, and the results have been encouraging. Real-time PCR is a new and a very attractive methodology for laboratory diagnosis of amebiasis, because of its characteristics that eliminate post-PCR analysis, leading to a shorter turnaround time. Microarray-based approaches represent an attractive diagnostic tool for the detection and identification of amebae in clinical and epidemiological investigations. Development of vaccines against amebiasis is still in its infancy. However, in recent years, progress has been made in the identification of possible vaccine candidates, the route of application, and the understanding of the immune response, which is required for protection against amebiasis. Thus, it is just a matter of time, and hopefully, amebiasis vaccine for human trials will be available in the next few years.
  7,017 609 1
A study of prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors among the school children of Itahari, Eastern Region of Nepal
Ram Bilakshan Sah, Sailesh Bhattarai, Satish Yadav, Ratna Baral, Nilambar Jha, Paras Kumar Pokharel
July-December 2013, 3(2):140-144
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.122143  PMID:24470999
Introduction: Intestinal parasitic infestation is a major public health problem in children of developing countries Because of poor socio-economic conditions and lack of good hygienic living. The aims of this study were to measure the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestations and to identify risk factors associated with parasitic infestations among the school children of Itahari Municipality. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in Grade VI, VII and VIII in Government and private schools of Itahari Municipality. Stratified random sampling method was applied to choose the schools and the study subjects. Semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the study subjects and microscopic examination of stool was done. The Chi-square test was used to measure the association of risk factors and parasitic infestation. Results: Overall intestinal parasitic infestation was found to be 31.5%. Around 13% of the study population was found to be infested with helminthes and 18.5% of the study population was protozoa infected. Not using soap after defecation, not wearing sandals, habit of nail biting and thumb sucking were found to be significantly associated with parasitic infection. Conclusions: The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestation was found to be high in school children of Itahari. Poor sanitary condition, lack of clean drinking water supply and education is supposed to play an important role in establishing intestinal parasitic infections.
  7,206 267 12
Pedunculated giant hepatic hydatid cyst: Largest ever reported
Gautam N Gole, Shekar Y Tati, Sujeethkumar Bashetty, Shashikant Somani
July-December 2011, 1(2):132-134
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.86966  PMID:23507808
Hepatic hydatidosis is common in many parts of our country. Largest cyst reported measured 37 × 14.88 × 15.4 cm. We encountered a case of giant hepatic hydatid cyst arising from the left lobe of liver, measuring 45 × 35 × 25 cm. It was completely occupying the peritoneal cavity and had a narrow pedunculated attachment to the liver. This hydatid cyst is larger than the largest reported cyst. Also, a pedunculated hydatid cyst has never been reported. Hence, the report.
  6,785 169 1
Toxoplasmosis - An update
Veena Mittal, RL Ichhpujani
January-June 2011, 1(1):9-14
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.72109  PMID:23508064
Toxplasmosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The disease affects one-third of the total world population. Transmission of the disease is mainly by ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts. Congenital toxoplasmosis occurs from the transplacental passage of the parasite from mother to fetus. In most adults it does not cause serious illness, but it can cause blindness and mental retardation in congenitally infected children, and it is a devastating disease in immunocompromised individuals. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis can be established by the direct detection of the parasite or by serological methods. The most commonly used and effective therapeutic regimen is the combination of pyrimethamine with sulfadiazine and folinic acid. This article provides an overview and update on transmission, diagnosis, management, and prevention of toxoplasmosis.
  6,267 638 5
Laboratory diagnosis of Blastocystis spp. in diarrheic patients
Azza S Elghareeb, Mohamed S Younis, Amany F El Fakahany, Ibrahim M Nagaty, Marwa M Nagib
January-June 2015, 5(1):36-41
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.149919  PMID:25709951
Background: Many laboratories currently diagnose Blastocystis spp. infections by looking for the presence of vacuolar forms in faeces and the amoeboid form in diarrheal stools. Objectives: To investigate the best direct method in diagnosis of Blastocystis spp. and to study different morphological forms of the parasite. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on one thousand and two hundred diarrheic stool samples. All samples were examined using direct smear, iodine stained smear, formalin-ether concentration techniques, trichrome stained smear and in vitro cultivation using Jones' medium. Results: Using direct smear, Blastocystis spp was detected in 42 cases (3.5%) with a sensitivity (28.4%) and specificity (100%). Iodine stained smear detected 72 positive cases (6%) with a sensitivity (48.7%), specificity (100%). Formol ether concentration technique detected 120 positive cases (10%) with a sensitivity (81.1%) and specificity (100%). Trichrome stained smear detected 148 positive cases (12.3%). In vitro cultivation using Joni's medium detected 274 positive cases (22.8%) which was the highest number among all different diagnostic methods with a sensitivity (100%) ,specificity (88%), PPV (54.1%) and NPV (100%). It was found that, 49 blastocystosis cases had mixed infection with other intestinal parasites. Giardia lamblia was the most frequently associated parasite with Blastocystis spp. Conclusion: In vitro cultivation is more sensitive in detection of B. hominis than simple smear and concentration technique. Blastocystis spp. vacuolar form was the most common form that was found by all methods used in this study G. lamblia was the most frequent parasite associated with Blastocystis spp .
  6,660 27 5
Blastocystis: Genetic diversity and molecular methods for diagnosis and epidemiology
Christen Rune Stensvold
January-June 2013, 3(1):26-34
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.113896  PMID:23961438
Blastocystis , an unusual anaerobic, single-celled stramenopile, is a remarkably successful intestinal parasite of a vast array of host species including humans. Fecal Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis by nucleic-acid based methods in particular has led to significant advances in Blastocystis diagnostics and research over the past few years enabling accurate identification of carriers and molecular characterization by high discriminatory power. Moreover, Blastocystis comprises a multitude of subtypes (STs) (arguably species) many of which have been identified only recently and molecular epidemiological studies have revealed a significant difference in the distribution of STs across host species and geographical regions. Having a cosmopolitan distribution, the parasite is a common laboratory finding in the stools of individuals with and without intestinal symptoms across the entire globe and while the parasite remains extremely difficult to eradicate and isolate in culture, appropriate molecular tools are now available to resolve important questions such as whether the clinical outcome of colonization is linked to ST and whether Blastocystis is transmitted zoonotically. This review summarizes some of the recent advances in the molecular diagnosis of Blastocystis and gives an introduction to Blastocystis STs, including a recommendation of subtyping methodology based on recent data and method comparisons. A few suggestions for future directions and research areas are given in the light of relevant technological advances and the availability of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes.
  6,328 341 36
Emerging protozoal pathogens in India: How prepared are we to face the threat?
Subhash Chandra Parija, Sidhartha Giri
January-June 2012, 2(1):13-19
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.97233  PMID:23508066
Emerging protozoal pathogens have become a major threat to human health. The number of protozoal pathogens causing human disease has been on the rise since the last two to three decades. Significant increase in the number of immunocompromised people, increase in international travel, deforestation, and widespread urban dwellings are some of the factors contributing to this changing epidemiology of protozoal diseases. Apart from Naegleria and Acanthamoeba, other free-living amoebae like Balamuthia and Sappinia are being reported to cause meningoencephalitis in humans. Plasmodium knowlesi, a zoonotic malarial parasite, has become a major cause of human malaria in Southeast Asia. Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma lewisi, which normally infect horses and rodents respectively, have been reported to cause human trypanosomiasis in India. Balantidium coli is emerging as an important cause of dysentery especially in the immunocompromised population. In India, where a significant proportion of population lives in close proximity to cattle and pigs, B. coli can emerge as a significant pathogen in cases of dysentery, especially in the immunocompromised population. Babesia microti has become an important cause of transfusion transmitted babesiosis (TTB) in countries like the United States. As Babesia can be misdiagnosed as Plasmodium and blood transfusion is becoming common in India, it is necessary to develop diagnostic tests to rule out this pathogen in blood donors. Increased awareness among clinicians, pathologists, and microbiologists along with other factors like constant surveillance, improved diagnostic tests, and a high index of suspicion are important to detect and properly treat such emerging protozoal pathogens in humans.
  6,098 564 1
Drug resistance in leishmaniasis: Newer developments
Sarita Mohapatra
January-June 2014, 4(1):4-9
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.129142  PMID:24754020
Leishmaniasis is a vector borne protozoan disease and it remains a major public health problem world-wide. Lack of an effective vaccine and vector control program makes the chemotherapy as the primary tool for leishmaniasis. Antimonials were used as the first line of treatment for many years. Emergence of resistance against this drug has become a major concern. Literatures and studies published on anti-leishmanial drug resistance, newer drug discovery for leishmanial resistance etc., in PubMed, Medline and Google search and reviewed thoroughly. Various newer drugs have been identified but, are in limited use because of high cost, toxicity, resistance etc., Recently, many newer mechanisms of drug resistance have been identified which may boost in future designing and development of drugs.
  6,262 314 39
Intraventricular and subarachnoid racemose cysticercosis
Puneet Mittal, Gaurav Mittal
July-December 2011, 1(2):111-112
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.86950  PMID:23508622
Cysticercosis is endemic in India. Neurocysticercosis most commonly affects the brain parenchyma, which presents as focal lesions with the surrounding edema which later calcify. Rarely, it may affect the ventricular system and subarachnoid spaces and this form is known as racemose cysticercosis. We present magnetic resonance findings in a case of racemose cysticercosis.
  6,282 204 3
Balamuthia mandrillaris: Morphology, biology, and virulence
Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Naveed Ahmed Khan
January-June 2015, 5(1):15-22
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.149888  PMID:25709948
Balamuthia mandrillaris is a protist pathogen that can cause encephalitis with a fatality rate of >95%. This is due to our incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of B. mandrillaris encephalitis. B. mandrillaris has two stages in its life cycle, an active trophozoite stage during which it divides mitotically. However, under unfavorable conditions, the trophozoite transforms into a dormant cyst stage. A major concern during the course of therapy is that B. mandrillaris can transform into cysts. Cysts are highly resistant to physical and chemical conditions and present a problem in successful antimicrobial chemotherapy. Several lines of evidence suggest that B. mandrillaris encephalitis develops as a result of hematogenous spread, but it is unclear how circulating amoebae enter the central nervous system and cause inflammation, blood-brain barrier disruption, and neuronal injury. Recent studies have identified several parasite-host determinants for B. mandrillaris translocation of the blood-brain barrier, and host inflammatory markers that may be associated with neuronal injury. These determinants may provide important targets for the prevention and treatment of this devastating infection. Here, we present a brief overview of the current understanding of the morphology, biology, pathogenesis, and pathophysiology of B. mandrillaris encephalitis.
  6,349 22 7
Laboratory diagnosis of Taenia asiatica in humans and animals
Subhash Chandra Parija, Dinoop Korol Ponnambath
July-December 2013, 3(2):120-124
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.122127  PMID:24470995
Taenia asiatica is a recently described species known to cause intestinal teniasis in humans and cysticercosis in animals. This species has close morphological resemblance to Taenia saginata and has a life cycle resembling Taenia solium, hence has been posing diagnostic dilemma and had been the reason for its comparatively late discovery. Recent diagnostic tools such as serological and molecular techniques have thrown light on its exact prevalence in the endemic countries. Hence introduction of utilization of these techniques in addition to the routine morphological analysis would be helpful in diagnosis of T. asiatica infections and early implementation of preventive measures.
  6,185 117 -