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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 125-131

Evaluation of a newly designed sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of hydatid antigen in serum, urine and cyst fluid for diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis


Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India

Correspondence Address:
Subhash Chandra Parija
Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Institute ofPostgraduate Medical Education and Research,Puducherry 605 006
India
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DOI: 10.4103/2229-5070.122131

PMID: 24470996

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Introduction: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic disease of humans with variable clinical manifestations. Imaging and immunological methods are currently the mainstay of diagnosis of this disease. Although the immunological tests for detection of anti-echinococcal antibodies have several disadvantages, they are widely being used. Antigen is far more superior than antibody detection test as they can provide a specific parasitic diagnosis. Materials and Methods: A sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was designed using antibodies to 24 kDa urinary hydatid antigen for the detection of hydatid antigens in urine, serum and cyst fluid specimens. The performance of this novel test was compared with that of other hydatid antibody detection ELISA and enzyme immune transfer blot (EITB) using radiological and surgical confirmation as the gold standard. Results: The antigen detection ELISA showed 100% sensitivity and specificity when tested with cyst fluid. On testing urine and serum, the antigen detection ELISA was found to be more specific than antibody detection ELISA. EITB was found to be the most sensitive and specific test. Conclusions: ELISA using polyclonal antibodies against 24 kDa urinary hydatid protein was moderately sensitive to detect hydatid antigen in serum and urine. Hence polyclonal antibodies to 24 kDa urinary hydatid antigen can be used as an alternative source of antibody to detect hydatid antigen in serum, urine and cyst fluid. In the present study, EITB was found to be highly specific test for detection of hydatid antibodiesin serum. 24 kDa protein was found to be specific and of diagnostic value in CE.


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