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   2014| January-June  | Volume 4 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 20, 2014

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Drug resistance in leishmaniasis: Newer developments
Sarita Mohapatra
January-June 2014, 4(1):4-9
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.129142  PMID:24754020
Leishmaniasis is a vector borne protozoan disease and it remains a major public health problem world-wide. Lack of an effective vaccine and vector control program makes the chemotherapy as the primary tool for leishmaniasis. Antimonials were used as the first line of treatment for many years. Emergence of resistance against this drug has become a major concern. Literatures and studies published on anti-leishmanial drug resistance, newer drug discovery for leishmanial resistance etc., in PubMed, Medline and Google search and reviewed thoroughly. Various newer drugs have been identified but, are in limited use because of high cost, toxicity, resistance etc., Recently, many newer mechanisms of drug resistance have been identified which may boost in future designing and development of drugs.
  7,344 314 39
The lost hope of elimination of Kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis) by 2010 and cyclic occurrence of its outbreak in India, blame falls on vector control practices or co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus or therapeutic modalities?
Mayilsamy Muniaraj
January-June 2014, 4(1):10-19
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.129143  PMID:24754021
The Kala-azar/visceral leishmaniasis (VL) turns epidemic form once in every 15 years in the endemic regions of Indian subcontinent. The goal of elimination of Kala-azar from India by 2010 was lost despite paramount efforts taken by the Government of India and World Health Organization and Regional Office for South East Asia. The main objective of this review was to elucidate the possible reason for the failure of Kala-azar elimination program and to suggest possible remedial measures to achieve the goal in future. The annual numbers of VL cases and deaths recorded in India since 1977 were plotted on a graph, to see if the temporal trends could be associated with changes in the vector control practices or co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or therapeutic modalities used against VL. The VL cases flares up whenever the effect of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) diminished after the withdrawal of spray. The fading effectiveness was clearly correlated with an increasing number of VL cases. Therapeutic modalities were found to be highly correlating with VL mortality not with VL morbidity. The diminishing efficacy of first and second line drugs and the introduction of new drugs and drugs combination were responsible for ups and downs in the VL mortality. The VL mortality is constantly declining since 1993, but cases started increasing from 2003 to 2007 and then recently again from 2010 to 2011. This shows a serious lacuna in the vector control practices applied. The extent of HIV co-infection did not show any correlation with number/trend of VL cases or death over the study period. It is concluded that, by strict vector control practices, the VL cases can be reduced and by applying proper therapeutic strategies, the VL mortality can be reduced. HIV-VL co-infection does not seem to be in a worried stage.
  6,489 230 20
DISPATCHES
The basic rules and methods of mosquito rearing (Aedes aegypti)
Hashmat Imam, Zarnigar , Ghulamuddin Sofi, Seikh Aziz
January-June 2014, 4(1):53-55
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.129167  PMID:24754030
The rearing of Aedes mosquitoes is complex and demanding for several reasons. Aedes larvae are affected by temperature, density and available nutrition, mating is not necessarily accomplished naturally and females need a blood meal to develop eggs. The climate chambers where the mosquitoes are kept are warm and sweaty. Due to these tropical conditions the larvae develop fast and need to be cared for daily. The Laboratory of Entomology in National Institute of Malaria Research Bangalore has cultured different colonies of different vectors successfully. In this paper, we discuss different aspects off the rearing process which affect mosquito fitness and are of importance for the quality of fundamental and applied research.
  6,014 151 8
A rare case of urinary balantidiasis in an elderly renal failure patient
T Karuna, Sagar Khadanga
January-June 2014, 4(1):47-49
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.129165  PMID:24754028
Balantidium coli is the largest ciliated protozoa infecting humans by the feco-oral transmission from pigs. Large gut is the most common site of involvement. Symptomatology varies from asymptomatic carrier to invasive dysentery. Extra-intestinal infections can occur in liver, lung and urogenital tract. There are very few case reports of urinary balantidiasis. We present a case of urinary balantidiasis in an elderly farmer having diabetes and chronic kidney disease. This case is reported for its rarity and future references.
  5,004 112 4
SYMPOSIUMS
Challenges in diagnosis of Plasmodium knowlesi infections
SS Jeremiah, Anand B Janagond, Subhash Chandra Parija
January-June 2014, 4(1):25-30
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.129156  PMID:24754023
Plasmodium knowlesi is the fifth species of Plasmodium recently identified to cause human malaria. Infections with P. knowlesi are currently being reported from South-East Asian countries and the incidence is on the rise with a possibility of spread to the geographically contiguous countries. P. knowlesi infections can result in a high degree of parasitemia causing severe malaria in a larger proportion of infected individuals. If detected early and treated with appropriate antimicrobials, these infections show a significant clinical improvement. The widely used microscopic methods usually misidentify P. knowlesi as the less pathogenic Plasmodium malariae leading to inadequate therapy and adverse clinical outcomes. The currently popular rapid immuno-chromatographic card tests have a very low sensitivity in diagnosing knowlesi malaria and can erroneously report P. knowlesi as other Plasmodia and vice-versa. At present molecular methods are the most efficacious in diagnosing P. knowlesi infections, but these tests can produce a false positive report in Plasmodium vivax infections and require expensive equipment and trained personnel. An ideal diagnostic test for P. knowlesi infections, which is potent, cost-effective and practically feasible in the resource limited setting is yet to be developed.
  4,151 155 11
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Differentiating Schistosoma haematobium from Schistosoma magrebowiei and other closely related schistosomes by polymerase chain reaction amplification of a species specific mitochondrial gene
Olaoluwa P Akinwale, Tang T Hock, Fan Chia-Kwung, Qi Zheng, Shen Haimo, Charles Ezeh, Pam V Gyang
January-June 2014, 4(1):38-42
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.129163  PMID:24754026
Introduction: Schistosoma haematobium infection afflicts about 150 million people in 53 countries in Africa and the Middle East. In many endemic areas, S. haematobium is sympatric with Schistosoma bovis, Schistosoma mattheei, Schistosoma curassoni, Schistosoma intercalatum and Schistosoma magrebowiei, its closely related species. In addition, they also develop in the same intermediate snail hosts. Since these schistosome species often infect snails inhabiting the same bodies of water, examining cercariae or infected snails for estimating transmission of S. haematobium is always confounded by the need to differentially identify S. haematobium from these other species. Recently, differentiating S. haematobium by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from S. bovis, S. mattheei, S. curassoni and S. intercalatum, but not from S. magrebowiei was reported. However, to be able to evaluate residual S. haematobium transmission after control interventions in areas where S. haematobium may be sympatric with S. magrebowiei, a differential tool for accurate monitoring of infected snails is needed. Materials and Methods : Thus in this study, we developed a new PCR assay using a pair of primers, ShND-1/ShND-2, to amplify a target sequence of 1117 bp (GenBank accession number KF834975) from S. haematobium mitochondrion complete genome (GenBank accession number DQ157222). Sensitivity of the assay was determined by PCR amplification of different concentrations of S. haematobium gDNA serially diluted from 10ng to 0.1pg. For assay specificity, different concentrations of gDNA from S. haematobium and the other schistosome species, 20 positive urine samples and five controls as well as 20 infected snails were subjected to PCR amplification, while some of the PCR products were sequenced. Results : The assay detected up to 1pg of S. haematobium gDNA, while a differential identification of S. haematobium DNA content from other closely related species was achieved when applied to urine and naturally infected snails. When a protein-protein blast search was carried out using Blastp, the amplified sequence was found to encode a protein that shows a 100% similarity with S. haematobium nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 3 (GenBank accession number YP_626524.1). Conclusion : The PCR assay was sensitive, specific and was able to successfully differentiate S. haematobium from S. magrebowiei, in addition to its other closely related animal infective schistosome species.
  3,932 104 4
SYMPOSIUMS
Molecular epidemiology of the emerging human malaria parasite " Plasmodium knowlesi"
Hassan Hakimi, Satoru Kawai, Shin-ichiro Kawazu
January-June 2014, 4(1):20-24
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.129154  PMID:24754022
Malaria is the most important parasitic disease with global concern. Plasmodium knowlesi recently has emerged from its natural simian host as a significant cause of human malaria, particularly in Malaysian Borneo. Therefore, it has been added as the fifth human Plasmodium specie which is widely distributed in Southeast Asia. Recent developments of new molecular tools enhanced our understanding about the key features of this malaria parasite. Here, we review some of the ways in which molecular approaches might be used for epidemiology of P. knowlesi and finally lead to an efficient control of malaria.
  3,745 172 3
DISPATCHES
First reported cases of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients in Jaipur District of Rajasthan, India
Saroj Hooja, Babita Sharma, Arpita Jindal, Nitya Vyas
January-June 2014, 4(1):50-52
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.129166  PMID:24754029
Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) is characterized by the presence of a large number of lesions at several anatomic sites (head, limbs and trunk). The lesions include papules, nodules and areas of diffuse infiltration that do not ulcerate and reveal abundant parasites on histopathological examination. DCL and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infections are seldom reported. We report two cases of DCL in HIV positive patients without visceral involvement. DCL is emerging as a new opportunistic infection associated with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
  3,521 81 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Molecular technique for detection of Leishmania infantum isolates in Iran
Mohsen Imani, Alireza Dolatyar Dehkharghani, Mohsen Ghelman, Mahnaz Mohammadloo
January-June 2014, 4(1):35-37
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.129160  PMID:24754025
Introduction: Leishmania infantum is the causative agent of autochthonous cutaneous and visceral cases of leishmaniasis and transmitted by female sandflies. The dogs are considered the main reservoir hosts; however, there are the reports on Leishmania infection in other animals. In this study, occurrence types of L. infantum isolates have been analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 77 samples were cultured and prepared for microscopic study and examined through PCR-RFLP. The samples were used for both deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and smear-slide preparations. The DNAs were amplified by PCR for the detection of Leishmania subgenus and PCR products were restricted with HaeIII for the species differentiation. Results: The visceral Leishmania parasites were genotyped as L. infantum. It was also determined sensitivity in PCR (100%) was higher than microscopic examination. Conclusion: PCR-RFLP technique appears to be most sensitive for the detection and differentiation of L. infantum. There exists a relationship between genetic heterogeneousness and clinical manifestation and geographical regions of this disease in human.
  3,215 141 2
SYMPOSIUMS
Recent advances in the management of Plasmodium knowlesi infection
M Vadivelan, TK Dutta
January-June 2014, 4(1):31-34
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.129158  PMID:24754024
Plasmodium knowlesi (P. knowlesi) has been detected to be the fifth malarial parasite that can cause malaria in human beings. The parasite is known to commonly infect macaque monkeys. The infection is highly prevalent in South-East Asia. It has morphologic similarities to Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium falciparum. P. knowlesi is known to replicate every 24 h in the human host and hence, causes "quotidian malaria." It causes a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and sometimes can cause fatal illness. Chloroquine is effective in the treatment of uncomplicated P. knowlesi infection. Severe and complicated P. knowlesi malaria can be managed with artemisinin combination therapy.
  3,141 121 5
LETTERS TO EDITOR
A simple and rapid staining method for detection of hemozoin pigment by methylene blue stain
Sarita Mohapatra, Daisy Sharma, Kavita Gupta, Manorama Deb, Rajni Gaind
January-June 2014, 4(1):59-62
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.129190  PMID:24754033
  3,110 100 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Performance of polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis using serum, urine, and cyst fluid samples
DR Chaya, Subhash Chandra Parija
January-June 2014, 4(1):43-46
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.129164  PMID:24754027
Introduction: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a chronic zoonosis which presents with variable clinical manifestations. Currently the diagnosis of this disease is based on radiological findings and serological tests which lack specificity. Although antigen detection from the cyst fluid is the most specific, it is seldom done due to the complications involved. Detecting the presence of Echinococcus granulosus specific deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could provide a definitive diagnosis of CE. Materials and Methods: An in-house PCR assay was devised to detect E. granulosus specific DNA in serum, urine and hydatid cyst fluid. The ability of the PCR to detect E. granulosus in the above mentioned samples were observed in comparison with other antigen and antibody detection tests. Results: Serum samples from surgically confirmed patients of CE with ruptured cysts contained the corresponding DNA while the in the majority of cases who had an intact cyst had no DNA of E. granulosus in their serum. DNA of E. granulosus was not found to be excreted in urine. PCR performed equal to antigen detection ELISA while testing hydatid cyst fluid samples. Conclusions: Serum and urine might not serve as useful samples for the molecular diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis. However, PCR can be useful on serum samples to detect ruptured hydatid cysts and on hydatid cyst fluid to confirm the parasitic diagnosis.
  2,996 110 3
ETHICS IN SERIES
Ethics of sponsored research
Jharna Mandal, Subhash Chandra Parija
January-June 2014, 4(1):2-3
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.129140  PMID:24754019
The combined effort of private sponsors and academic researchers will undoubtedly bring in the forms of clinical trials is expected to usher in tremendous progress in science. Unfortunately, if not monitored, such trials can deviate from the humanitarian goals. Hence, registration in a common platform of such trials is mandatory and monitoring of such platforms is also necessary. Furthermore, caution should be exercised at all levels during the conduct of a trial.
  2,555 89 3
LETTERS TO EDITOR
A case of mixed infection with filariasis and visceral leishmaniasis
Nishat Hussain Ahmed, JV Shwetha, Jyotish Chandra Samantaray, Kalachand Jana
January-June 2014, 4(1):62-64
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.129191  PMID:24754034
  2,417 78 1
DISPATCHES
Unusual presentation of acute pancreatitis in falciparum malaria
Saikat Ghosh, Somak Kumar Das, Anand Sharma
January-June 2014, 4(1):56-57
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.129188  PMID:24754031
Malaria is known for its protean manifestations and multi systemic complications. Acute pancreatitis as a consequence of falciparum malaria is rare in the literature. We report a case of falciparum malaria complicated by acute pancreatitis.
  2,369 51 1
EDITORIAL
Plasmodium knowlesi and other blood parasites
Subhash Chandra Parija
January-June 2014, 4(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.129139  PMID:24754018
  2,067 235 -
BOOK REVIEW
Illustrated Keys: Some Mosquitoes of Peninsula Malaysia
Subhash Chandra Parija
January-June 2014, 4(1):70-70
  1,915 95 -
FACE TO FACE
An interview with Dr. T. M. Mohapatra

January-June 2014, 4(1):65-69
PMID:24754035
  1,947 58 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Detection of microfilaria on needle aspiration from breast mass: An uncommon finding
Srikanth Shastry
January-June 2014, 4(1):58-59
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.129189  PMID:24754032
  1,865 63 1
RETRACTION NOTICE
Retraction Notice

January-June 2014, 4(1):69-69
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.129193  PMID:24754036
  1,456 64 -
Retraction Notice
,
January-June 2014, 4(1):70-70
DOI:10.4103/2229-5070.129195  PMID:24754037
  1,371 15 -
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